How recommissioning saves energy in buildings

  This article reviews how recommissioning of buildings can result in energy savings of 5 to 15% with a typical payback of under two years. In today’s business environment, buildings change on an ongoing basis: employees are added or moved; new departments are formed and old ones dissolved. Over time, entire sections or floors may […]

Selection of AC induction motors for cement plant applications

The selection of AC induction motors for cement mill applications, with reference to fan, kiln and vertical mill applications. Cement plant applications present an immense matrix of application criteria to specify, design and build motors properly. Operating conditions Basic motor specifications begin with determining the motor nameplate horsepower (hp) and revolutions per minute (rpm). These […]

Water treatment: boilers, cooling and effluent

  From the ICMEESA archive Effluent treatment is based on the ingenuity of chemists and engineers. The chemist may devise a short-cut method for the precipitation of the components but the electrical engineer designs the controls while the mechanical engineer design filters, conveyers, agitators and others. The methods employed in effluent treatment can often be […]

Designing an augmented reality platform in an enabled environment

  Developing an augmented reality platform for use as a differential drive mobility aid in an enabled environment to help conduct simulations with various wheelchair constructs and to produce pitch and roll actuated actions. Physical or cognitive impairment may compromise the ability to walk. The degree of mobility largely determines the extent to which the […]

Principles and testing methods of earth ground resistance

Poor grounding contributes to downtime but a lack of good grounding is also dangerous and increases the risk of equipment failure. Over time, corrosive soils with high moisture and salt content and high temperatures can degrade ground rods and their connections. So, although the ground system had low earth ground resistance values when initially installed, […]

Clever pumping: making water industry’s pumps intelligent

  Climate change, increasing water demands due to global urbanisation, and the legal obligations of the EU’s Water Framework Directive are all making the water sector an attractive arena for technologies that can help reduce costs and contribute to reducing the effects of climate change. It is against this backdrop that the demand for intelligent […]

Improving motor efficiency

  Some 20% of the estimated 65% of industrial energy used by electric motors is lost by wasteful throttling mechanisms, making it essential to reduce the energy appetite of motors. Energy consumption by electric motors can be reduced in two main ways – efficient control of the speed at which they run, and making the […]

Thermal measurement guidelines for LEDs

  Guidelines for the thermocouple attach to measure the solder point temperature and the calculation of the approximate LED junction temperature for various LEDs. One of the most critical design parameters in an LED illumination system is its ability to draw heat away from the LED package. High operating temperatures at the LED junction affect […]

Light pollution in South Africa: 2011 versus 2001

  This article outlines how artificial skyglow, also known as light pollution, is modelled using Census 2001 and Census 2011 population data. Light pollution is defined as “any adverse effect of artificial light including skyglow, glare, light trespass, light clutter, decreased visibility at night, and energy waste” [1]. This work, illustrated here, is a follow-up […]