Transformer testing facility using static converters

  In 2008 Rotek Engineering, a wholly owned subsidiary of Eskom Enterprises, embarked on a R100-million major expansion programme by upgrading its transformer testing facilities. The company’s requirements were to be able to test transformers up to 800 MVA and 765 kV. The area available for the test equipment was limited to 20 x 12 […]

Integrated and scalable Ethernet redundancy in substations

  An optimised IEC 61850 PRP/HSR architecture should provide scalable integration for easy modification of functionalities and extension of the substation. Upgrading single attached nodes (SANs) and dual attached nodes (DANs) to a PRP/HSR network will require an efficient and cost effective solution in order to construct a seamless/bumpless communication infrastructure to ensure maximum system […]

Rogowski coils in smart transformer monitoring

  Intelligent electricity network (smart grid) applications such as power generators, home energy management (HEM), battery monitoring systems (BMS), MV/LV substations, sub-metering, electrical vehicle stations, and solar power plants integrate more and more current sensors to ensure reliable integration of distributed renewable energy, energy storage, production and consumption. This leads to the implementation of more […]

Interpreting sweep frequency response analysis measurements

  Power transformers are critical components in an electrical power network. Testing, diagnostics and reliable condition assessment of power transformers becomes increasingly relevant due to the ageing of transformer fleets around the world. Transfer function measurements have been used as a diagnostic tool to detect mechanical failures in power transformers. Geometrical changes in the transformer […]

Breaker coordination: what you really need to know

  Selective coordination is an electrical system design practice that improves reliability. Breaker coordination methodology increases uptime by limiting power outages to the branch of an electrical system where a problem occurs without knocking out other areas of the system. When a fault happens, the closest overcurrent protective device opens either a breaker or a […]