Farewell to the incandescent lamp

  This article discusses the place of the incandescent lamp in the lighting industry over the years and explains in some detail three alternatives to this technology offered by the lighting industry. A lot has been written about the invention of the incandescent lamp. The first attempts at creating light using incandescent technology were made […]

The challenges of dimming LED loads with magnetic transformers

  The technical difficulties with dimming low-voltage LED lamps on magnetic transformers and some design tips to improve the situation and avoid problems. Anyone who has used LED loads with low-voltage magnetic or electronic transformers in dimming applications has likely experienced confusion, frustration or disappointment. Some blame the dimmer as the cause of the problem, […]

Thermal measurement guidelines for LEDs

  Guidelines for the thermocouple attach to measure the solder point temperature and the calculation of the approximate LED junction temperature for various LEDs. One of the most critical design parameters in an LED illumination system is its ability to draw heat away from the LED package. High operating temperatures at the LED junction affect […]

Light pollution in South Africa: 2011 versus 2001

  This article outlines how artificial skyglow, also known as light pollution, is modelled using Census 2001 and Census 2011 population data. Light pollution is defined as “any adverse effect of artificial light including skyglow, glare, light trespass, light clutter, decreased visibility at night, and energy waste” [1]. This work, illustrated here, is a follow-up […]

Fundamentals of lighting design

  A basic guide to lighting and lighting design explaining variables such as working plane, mounting height; depreciation factors; coefficient of utilisation and reflectance factors. The following basic design concepts should generally be considered when designing a lighting solution for either indoor or outdoor applications: Whether the lighting will be installed in a safe or […]

How smart seals extend the service life of luminaires

  “Intelligent seals” prevent the ingress of water and contaminants into luminaires’ housing while allowing pressure to equalise in both directions. Standard neon tubes and energy-saving lamps are increasingly replaced by LED lamps. With a very long service life, these lamps are extremely reliable and environmentally friendly. To achieve this service life, housings must be […]

Optical calculations for SSL applications

  Rough calculations are useful for estimating LED type and count at the beginning of a project. This article provides some typical techniques for calculating optical quantities and estimating LED count. A basic understanding of optical principles is necessary before any calculations can be started. The most important principles for SSL applications are reflection, refraction […]

Public lighting: Smarter lighting or no lighting at all?

  This article includes a review of major Belgian and international studies on street and highway lighting and its effects on road safety and energy conservation. In terms of street lighting, it is possible to maintain service and safety levels for users while saving energy. New terms are defined, such as “service level”, which measures […]

SANS 10114-1 compliance remains a prerequisite

Performance and energy efficiency improvements in lamps and lighting, as well as an influx of new products in recent years have replaced the familiar, standard performance parameters, but SANS 10114-1 must still be complied with. IEC Technical Committee TC 34, which is responsible for lamps and lighting standards, and the CIE International Committee on Illumination […]